It is the native language of the Punjabi people , an ethnolinguistic group of the cultural region of Punjab , which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan ,  the 11th most widely spoken language in India and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian subcontinent. It is the third most spoken language in the United Kingdom after the native British languages and Polish. It is the twenty-sixth most spoken language in the United States , and tenth in Australia. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors  of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit name for the region, Panchanada , which means 'Land of the Five Rivers'. The historical Punjab region , now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River , is a tributary of another, the Sutlej. Paishachi Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi developed from this Prakrit. The Arabic and modern-Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent.
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They speak Punjabi , a language from the Indo-Aryan language family. The Punjabis are the 7th largest ethnic group in the world by total population. The historical Punjab region see Partition of Punjab for important historical context is often referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan. Prior to that the sense and perception of a common "Punjabi" ethno-cultural identity and community did not exist, even though the majority of the various communities of the Punjab region had long shared linguistic, cultural and racial commonalities. Traditionally, Punjabi identity is primarily linguistic, geographical and cultural. Its identity is independent of historical origin or religion and refers to those who reside in the Punjab region or associate with its population and those who consider the Punjabi language their mother tongue. More or less all Punjabis share the same cultural background. Historically, the Punjabi people were a heterogeneous group and were subdivided into a number of clans called biradari literally meaning "brotherhood" or tribes , with each person bound to a clan.
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Gurmukhi alphabet (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ)
Punjabi descended from the Shauraseni language of medieval northern India and became a distinct language during the 11th century. There are two main varieties of Punjabi: Eastern Punjabi and Western Punjabi, each of which has a number of dialects. Eastern Punjabi is spoken by about Western Punjabi is spoken by about It is also known as Lahanda, Lahnda or Lahndi. Punjabi is one of India's 22 official languages and it is the first official language in East Punjab. In Pakistan Punjabi is the second most widely-spoken language but has no official status. The Gurmukhi alphabet developed from the Landa alphabet and was standardised during the 16th century by Guru Angad Dev Ji, the second Sikh guru.
Punjabi language , Punjabi also spelled Panjabi , one of the most widely spoken Indo-Aryan languages. It is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab and is one of the languages recognized by the Indian constitution. In Pakistan Punjabi is spoken by some 70 million speakers, mostly in Punjab province , but official status at both the national and the provincial level is reserved for Urdu. There are also important overseas communities of Punjabi speakers, particularly in Canada and the United Kingdom —where in the early 21st century they respectively constituted the third and fourth largest linguistic groups in the national populations—as well as in several parts of the United States. In India, Punjabi is written in the distinctive Gurmukhi script, which is particularly associated with the Sikhs. That script is a member of the Indic family of scripts , written from left to right, but in its organization it differs significantly from the Devanagari used to write Hindi. The Urdu script, written from right to left, is used for writing Punjabi in Pakistan, where it is nowadays often given the imitative name Shahmukhi. Punjabi is thus today one of the very few languages in the world to be written in two quite different and mutually unintelligible scripts. Other languages were cultivated for most kinds of writing, including Persian under the Mughal Empire , then Urdu during the British period and, in Pakistan, continuing to the present day. In most other Indo-Aryan-speaking areas of South Asia, the modern period saw overlapping local dialects being grouped into strictly defined provincial languages, but this process has taken much longer to happen in Punjab.